This document describes the ethical values and principles which apply to members of Özyeğin University. The ethical values and principles put in writing in this document were created and organized within the framework of the procedures and policies which have been written since the founding of Özyeğin University as well as the within the framework of the “Principles of Ethical Conduct for Higher Education Institutions” which were published by the Higher Education Council on October 22nd, 2014. Ethical values and principles put in writing hereunder set forth the principles which must be adhered to by members of Özyeğin University in solving the ethical problems they face as well as building and maintaining relationships with their colleagues, students, administrators, real or legal persons outside the University, as well as national and international organizations.
All staff members and students of Özyeğin University are personally responsible for adhering to the principles of ethical conduct with integrity and accountability.
Members of Özyeğin University are expected to place a special emphasis on seeking for the truth, endeavoring to reach perfection, providing equal opportunities and amenities for everyone, and protecting academic freedom which includes the freedom to teach, learn, conduct scientific research, share information, express ideas and opinions, as well as the freedom of communication and expression. In doing so, members of Özyeğin University accept, acknowledge and guarantee that they shall always observe the following ethical values and principles.
SECTION ONE DEFINITIONS, VALUES AND PRINCIPLES
Ethics: Ethics is a set of values, principles and standards that provide guidance pertaining to the conduct of individuals, institutions and professionals and help them determine what is “good” and “right”. Academic Ethics: Adherence of faculty members to the principles of ethical conduct in all relationships with different stakeholders in society; as well as during all stages of the development, presentation and evaluation of scientific work; appointment and promotion; as well as all stages of the process of building merit-based scientific institutions and universities, and preparing future scientists.
Plagiarism: Presenting and publishing others’ ideas, methods, data, work and publications partially or completely as one’s own without properly citing or referencing the source in compliance with the style and format of scientific citation or without obtaining due authorizations.
Fabrication: Presenting non-existent data or results as if existed. Falsification/Alteration: Deliberately changing, hiding and/or distorting data and/or results. Duplicate Publication: Publishing the same study as a whole more than once, as if it were a different publication. Salami (Segmented) Publication: Publishing the same study by splitting it into several publications in order to increase one’s number of publications.
Honorary/Unearned Authorship: Deliberately presenting oneself or being presented by others as the author of a study or having one’s name listed among the authors of a study using his/her personal power without actually making an active contribution to the study (during the research design, data collection and analysis, or the preparation and publication of the study).
Ghost Authorship: Not listing an individual who makes a substantial contribution to the study as an author. Uninformed Consent: Obtaining the consent of volunteers without properly informing them about the procedures to be followed during research, probable results and risks of the research as well as their right to withdraw/opt out from the research.
Violating the Principle of Voluntary Participation: Coercing a student or other groups of subjects into participating in research.
Violating the Principle of Confidentiality: Failing to keep the identity of subjects confidential or disclosing personal or corporate information obtained from subjects without a legal obligation to do so, or without obtaining necessary authorizations.
1.2.FUNDAMENTAL VALUES AND PRINCIPLES
Özyeğin University’s Ethical Principles are classified under the following categories:
1.Academic Freedom and Autonomy: Academic freedom is the freedom of scholars to individually or collectively acquire, develop and disseminate new information through research, analysis, discussions, documentation, as well as through producing, teaching, explaining and writing. Academic autonomy is the independence of higher education institutions from public or social powers of authority to make decisions about their academic operations and to determine their own policies pertaining to education, research, social service, international relations and for all other related activities. Özyeğin University is the defender of academic freedom and institutional autonomy. 2.Academic Integrity: Academic honesty is being open and responsible in all academic activities and acting in compliance with ethical principles and standards that build trust in society for science and scientists and must be followed in academic circles. a) Özyeğin University expects academic integrity not only from its students but also from all its stakeholders in all their actions. Academic integrity entails the commitment to act with trustworthiness, honesty, fairness and respect. All of these values are essential for the overall achievement of the university community. All members of the university community are entitled to expect all other members to maintain the highest level of academic integrity. Any violation of academic integrity is a threat to the fundamental mission of the University. b)Members of Özyeğin University are expected to maintain their academic integrity and avoid any conflict between their personal interests and professional responsibilities. 3. Responsibility and Accountability: Responsibility is fulfillment of all roles and responsibilities as well as any scientific and academic activity or conduct according to requisite standards; and efficient use of national or institutional resources by members of Özyeğin University. Accountability is the obligation of all members of Özyeğin University towards those who have provided them with resources to fulfill a responsibility to be transparent and to account for how and to what degree the resources are used and the responsibility is fulfilled. All employees must use the University’s resources in the most efficient and economic manner by paying maximum attention to their work and expenditures, and must be sensitive to the protection of environment and natural life. 4. Protection and Promotion of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: Özyeğin University protects and promotes fundamental rights and freedoms of all its members as well as all members of society. Özyeğin University is sensitive to social problems. Özyeğin University supports all activities that aim to contribute to society and fulfill social responsibilities; and, to that end, enters into cooperation with relevant institutions. 5. Respecting Others: Members of Özyeğin University must respect and value differences among individuals, never allow discrimination or harassment, treat all colleagues, employees, students, stakeholders and external parties and individuals with kindness and respect; and protect the dignity and honor of all stakeholders. Members of Özyeğin University are responsible for cooperating with the university management to contribute to the prevention of violence and harassment within the campus premises and shared areas. Özyeğin University hires academic and administrative staff and admits students regardless of gender, race, color, national or ethnic origin, creed, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation or gender identity; and does not discriminate on the basis of gender, race, color, national or ethnic origin, creed, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation or gender identity in the administration of its educational and employment policies, its scholarship conferment, or any university-sponsored programs. 6. Academic Merit: Academic merit is selecting and assigning members of Özyeğin University for a position or a role for which they have applied by evaluating their skills, qualifications, and experiences based on the standards required by the respective position or role. 7. Multi-Dimensionality: Özyeğin University adopts a multidimensional approach which provides different possibilities and prospects, and creates an environment that nurtures different cultures and points of view. The university promotes creativity through its environment of diversity which provides a wide array of opportunities for intercultural exchange, and supports learning and discovery. In this context, international students and faculty as well as exchange programs and international academic cooperation must be emphasized. 8. Accessibility: Özyeğin University is founded with the principle of being financially accessible to students from various segments of Turkey and the region through its effective operation and financial support model. Thanks to its effective scholarship system, the university offers opportunities to outstanding and talented students with limited financial resources. 9. Environmental Awareness: Members of Özyeğin University warrants to be sensitive to the protection of the environment and natural life and to abide by the relevant rules and regulations. 10. Adherence to the principle of confidentiality: Adherence by all members of the university to the principle of not disclosing any confidential information or trade secrets obtained or disclosed in connection with the University’s operations and administrative processes due to one’s position at the University, or any information about the University’s administrative processes that the University might expect to be kept confidential due to its nature, without the written approval of the University, during the contractual relationship or even after the termination of the contractual relationship for any reason, excluding any information disclosed due to legal obligation; and of exercising the best efforts and taking all necessary precautions to prevent the access or disclosure of such confidential information.
SECTION TWO ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF FACULTY MEMBERS
2.1.Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for Their Colleagues
a) To be fair and respectful to all colleagues regardless they are members of academic or administrative staff. b) To defend the academic rights and freedoms of their colleagues. c) To be fair, objective and neutral when evaluating or presenting their professional opinion about the work of their colleagues, and to avoid deliberately making wrong or malevolent statements about their colleagues. d) Not to disclose any confidential or personal information of their colleagues unless legally required to do so. e) To contribute to the professional development of their colleagues. f) To avoid any discrimination based on race, religion, age, gender, ethnic origin, or disability or for any political, arbitrary or personal reasons. g) Not to prevent their colleagues from exercising their professional rights and authorities, or from fulfilling their roles and responsibilities due to arbitrary reasons. h) Not to exercise any pressure or coercion on their colleagues to influence their professional decisions.
2.2.Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for Their Own Fields of Research
a) To constantly develop themselves in their respective academic field. b) To maintain their academic honesty/integrity in all their scholarly endeavors. c) Not to denigrate or disparage other fields of science. d) Neither to provide misleading information, to misrepresent their professional qualifications, nor to deliberately hide facts about their competency or qualifications when applying for a position. e) Not to accept any awards, gifts or donations that might change or affect their professional judgement or behavior. Members of Özyeğin University may not accept, directly or indirectly any gifts; may not gain any material or non-material benefits; and may not accept any loans from any individual or organization with whom they have a business relationship. f) Not to serve as a referee, researcher, subject matter expert, or member of the examination, dissertation, assignment or appointment committee in the fields in which they are not specialized. g) Not to serve as a referee, subject matter expert or member of the appointment, assignment and assessment committee for scholars with whom they have a “conflict of interest” or a relationship based on “self-interest”.
2.3. Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for The University
a) To participate in the governance of the university through committee, commission, work group, board memberships or assignments. b) Not to engage in external professional activities that do not comply with their roles and responsibilities at the University. c) To treat other members of Özyeğin University with fairness and respect; not to use them for personal gain or errands; and not to verbally or physically abuse them. d) To use the financial resources of the University honestly in a manner that fits their purpose. e) Not to abuse their professional and institutional position to gain personal interest. f) To accept that the University’s Directives on Intellectual Property Rights and other related rules and regulations and directives in effect at that time shall prevail in utilizing any intellectual property or sharing pecuniary rights therein including but not limited to all kinds of inventions, utility models, industrial designs, software and trademarks and any other products capable of being protected as intellectual property which may pertain to or result from any activity performed by the faculty member as part of his/her role at the University.
2.4. Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for Society
a) To strive to play an effective role for serving society and developing the economic, social, cultural and intellectual capacity of society. b) To distinguish scientific findings from personal opinions when making public announcements. c) To set personal opinions apart from the University’s institutional opinions when making a public statement about an administrative issue. d) To teach and research the issues that are closely linked to the scientific, cultural, social and economic development of the country; present their findings in the service of society; and share opinions, ideas and recommendations with society. e) To protect and promote fundamental rights and freedoms of all members of society. f) To protect and preserve not only human rights but also the rights and welfare of all human or nonhuman experimental or testing subjects.
SECTION THREE THE ETHICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, PUBLICATION AND EVALUATION
3.1.The Ethics of Scientific Research and Publication
b) To have competence in the design and conduct of research; to maintain self-criticism, honesty/integrity and transparency during the conduct of research and the analysis of findings; and to respect ongoing, or past studies conducted by other researchers on the same subject. c) To adopt an honest and objective approach to the topic of research; to be open and honest while reporting research results; and to give credit to everyone that has contributed to the research. d) To determine the distribution of all roles and responsibilities in research and all rights in publications at the onset of the research so as to make sure the scientific work fully complies with the research methodology and the research ethics. e) To present in the research all resources (including online resources) and methodologies employed to collect and analyze data. f) To acknowledge the fundamental principle that the information provided in scholarly publications must be accurate and complete, and that information should not be deliberately withheld from publications; to act in compliance with the ethics of scientific research during the production and development of knowledge; and to publish only scientifically-developed and -compiled information and data. g) To endeavor to prepare unbiased and objective content for publications; and to never change research results in publications for personal gain, commercial interest, political views or other similar reasons. h) To make proper citations for all resources used for the publication; and to acknowledge all individuals who have made substantial contributions to the production, compilation, analysis, and publication of the information presented in the publication either by listing them as authors or by giving credit to them. i) To preserve the right of authorship, which entails responsibility and accountability in research and publication, in all scientific studies, and to list the names of authors based on their contributions for research. j) To avoid the worst ethical violations of presenting others’ written, printed or online work or artistic applications as one’s own work wholly or in part without proper scientific citation; to present findings and artistic applications without explicitly indicating that they are excerpts [by changing the font, writing them in italics, putting them in quotation marks, highlighting them in the document, adding footnotes or referencing], to present others’ work as one’s own work by rewording or paraphrasing; to present others’ information, opinions or practices as one’s own. k) Not to withhold any information while citing; to provide sufficient information about the source of reference; and not to present the data whose source is forgotten as one’s own opinion. l) To keep the data and analyses used in the research for at least five years.
3.2.The Ethics of Scientific Evaluation
a) To be independent, honest, unbiased and objective in scientific evaluations and while serving as a reviewer, editor, subject matter expert, referee, and the like. b) To adhere to the principle of confidentiality. c) To be open and transparent in scientific evaluations and provide justifications. d) To adhere to the evaluation schedule and deadlines; to provide constructive feedback and recommendations in scientific evaluations; and to avoid making offending statements about the owner of the work. e) Never to abuse one’s authority as a referee by stealing the ideas presented in a study submitted for scientific evaluation. f) Not to breach scientific standards when determining referees. g) Not to serve as a referee to evaluate the scientific publications of scholars with whom one has a “conflict of interest” or a relationship based on “self-interest”.
SECTION FOUR THE ETHICS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
4.1.Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for Teaching and Learning
a) To teach courses in compliance with the curriculum approved by authorized boards. b) Never to disclose the grades and assessments received by students for their academic performance in class with third persons without a court order or the permission of students. c) To be present at the time and place specified in the course schedule and, unless for unavoidable reasons, never to let any other person teach the respective course. d) To prepare a written course schedule for all courses taught and make it accessible for all students. e) To provide the necessary support and assistance to students with disabilities as required by law.
4.2.Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members for Students
a) To build an environment that promotes and encourages research, inquiry and learning. b) To encourage students to learn the fundamental values and principles of the respective profession or discipline, to freely express their opinions and to think independently. c) To evaluate students’ academic work and performance fairly, objectively and honestly; to contribute to students’ learning through evaluation and assessment; and to provide constructive and timely feedback. d) To grade students’ academic work and examinations and to announce grades in a timely manner. e) To protect the academic freedom of students and not to let any practices that might impair their right to learn. f) To take students’ course evaluations into account. g) To respect and maintain the confidentiality of the personal-private information of students, other than those which must be disclosed as required by law. h) Not to exploit students for personal gain. i) To be fair and objective when writing letters of reference for students. j) Not to enter into a close personal or intimate relationship with a student which might cross the boundaries of professionalism; and to treat all students equally. k) Not to condone or ignore any abusive, exploitative, violent, oppressive, degrading, or disturbing act in any way, and to take the necessary course of action. l) To constantly research and further specialize in the respective field of teaching to provide students with a high quality and modern education. m) To acknowledge that each student has different skills and characteristics; and to contribute to the intellectual and personal development of each student. n) To serve as a role model to prepare students with the highest professional ethical values and contribute to their multidimensional development. o) To encourage students to respect each other and all members of faculty. p) To endeavor to keep students away from environments that might hinder their learning or cause harm to their health or safety. q) Not to accept any gifts from students. r) Not to coerce students into purchasing their own book or similar other printed or visual work; and not to use the dissertation grade or point as means of pressure.
SECTION FIVE THE ETHICS OF SERVICE
5.1 Ethical Principles and Values of Service for Members of Özyeğin University/p>
a) To respect laws, and to observe the principles of legality, fairness, equality, honesty, transparency and accountability in all acts and actions in the service of society; not to engage in any discrimination based on language, religion, world-view, political view, race, age, gender and similar other reasons while performing one’s roles and responsibilities or letting others benefit from one’s services; not to engage in any acts or actions that violate or restrict human rights and freedoms or that hinder the equality of opportunity. b) To always act in the best interest of humanity by showing awareness about societal issues (environment, health, education, justice etc.). c) Not to fail to duly perform one’s own roles and responsibilities at the University so as to participate in an event or activity that is not related to the University. d) To fulfill any compensated external work in compliance with effective laws and the principle of honesty. e To avoid being used as a means of commercial advertisement. f) To protect the dignity and reputation of one’s position and of the University during events that are not related to the University. g) To stay away from any events that might compromise one’s honesty and objectivity. h) To provide public services in compliance with the required standards and processes; and to inform beneficiaries about applicable processes and procedures during the term of service. i) Never to engage in arbitrary behavior or oppressive, insulting and threatening acts or actions; not to issue reports that do not rely on clear and conclusive evidence; and not to request any service, amenities nor seek other similar personal gain in violation of effective legislations. j) To promptly notify authorities when requested to engage in unethical or illegal acts or actions, or upon witnessing or becoming aware of such an act or action while fulfilling professional roles and responsibilities. k) To be cautious about conflicts of interest or relationships based on self-interest. l) Not to abuse one’s own position, title or authority for one’s own material or non-material benefit or for that of a family member or a third person. m) Members of Özyeğin University may not accept, directly or indirectly, any gifts; may not gain any material or non-material benefits; and may not accept any loans from any individual or organization with whom they have a business relationship.
SECTION SIX THE ETHICS OF ACADEMIC MANAGEMENT
6.1.Ethical Principles and Values for Administrators of Özyeğin University
a) To protect the personal dignity and professional reputation of the members of the University. b) Not to engage in discrimination among members of the University based on language, race, color, gender, appearance, political view, philosophical belief, religion, sect, or similar other reasons. c) To strive to ensure institutional autonomy; to view academic freedom and coexistence of different views and opinions as a fundamental value of university life. d) To evaluate the appointment and promotion applications of faculty members based on senate-approved academic performance criteria. e) Not to breach scientific standards during the recruitment, promotion and appointment of faculty members; not to violate the rule of merit when describing required special qualifications for an open academic position. f) To take all necessary measures to educate, build awareness and provide information in order to exclude unethical behaviors from academic life including abuse, harassment, and workplace bullying; and to protect the rights of individuals who suffered from such behaviors. g) To evaluate cases of sexual abuse within the framework of ethical criteria, not within the narrow framework specified by effective laws. In the event of sexual abuse or the use of power and influence to this end, to adhere to the principle of confidentiality when reviewing the application of a faculty member, a student or a staff member who has suffered from sexual abuse. h) To observe the principles of fairness and merit when supporting or allowing faculty members to participate in national and international scientific activities. i) To avoid any behavior which might restrict the personal rights of employees or hinder their careers. j) To protect the legal rights of faculty members arising from their scientific and artistic work, research and publications. k) To distribute course loads among faculty members with fairness based on their fields of specialization and competency. l) To be transparent and accountable when managing or using the University’s resources. m) Not to engage in any personal relationship based on self-interest with individuals, organizations or institutions that have a business relationship with the university. n) To provide the necessary conditions to ensure the independence of ethical boards; to execute the decisions of ethical boards with fairness; and not to remain silent about unethical attitudes or behaviors. o) To observe the principle of objectivity in all relationships with political institutions and other non-governmental organizations.